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FIVE NEW BOOKS
BY MARIO MIRANDA

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Mario's Goa
Mario's Travels
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Indian Architechture Through the Ages Introduction to Indian Architechture Architechtural Glossary Getting Around in India
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ADINATHA
Legend says that Adinatha was the first tirthankara of Jainism. He was also called Rishabanatha. His son was called Gomateshwara.

AHIMSA
Ahimsa means no killing or non-violence. It was preached by all the religions in India, but was put to practice most effectively, by Jains.

AJIVIKAS
Ajivikas was a religion started by Makkari Gosala, at the same time as, Buddhism and Jainism. The features of this religion were fatalism and austerity. It is said that this religion was later interpolated into Jainism.

AKBAR
Akbar was the third emperor of the Mughal dynasty. In addition to establishing the empire, he also strove to blend Hinduism and Islam. He put this into effect in Fatehpur Sikri and in his own tomb, in Sikandra.

AMALAKA
This is one of the constituent parts of the shikhara, in the north Indian type of temples. It resembles the seed of an amalok (amalaka in Sanskrit). It is circular in shape and is symbolically placed at the apex of the shrine.

AMMAN SHRINE
This is a shrine adjacent to the main shrine in south Indian temples, where the consort of the main god is enshrined.

ANTARALA
Antarala is a small space or front room between the garbhagriha (shrine) and mandapa, usually found in north Indian temples.

APSIDAL SHAPE
The plan with a rectangular entrance and a circular rear. This was developed as Buddhist Chaitya shrines and can be seen in very early Hindu temples too.

ARCH
An arch is a curved opening, built by placing cut stones or bricks along a predefined curve. Traditionally, in India, column and beam structures, corbelled constructions, etc., were common. An arch is also called a true arch.

ARYANS
Aryans entered India from the north, in 1500 BC and settled here. They used to speak an Indo-European dialect. Entirely different from the Dravidians of the south, they introduced the Veda religion and Brahman religion into India.

ASHOKA
Ashoka was the ruler of the Maurya dynasty that ruled during the period 321 BC to 184 BC. He brought most of India under his control. When he converted to Buddhism, he built a stupa and stambha in every region.

ASHRAM
An ashram is a training ground for Hinduism. Gandhi also called the living place of his followers, ashram.

BAGH
A Persian word, meaning garden.

BAHAI FAITH
This is a religion started by Bahaulla, in 1863, in Persia. It believes that there is only one God, one world and one people.

BANGALDAR ROOF
The roof style commonly seen in Bengali houses. The four corners are bent and fall vertically. Through the Mughals, this style spread as far as west India.

BANGLA
The common Bengal-style roof. Since Bengal gets more rainfall, the thatched roofs were bent to face downwards. When this style was incorporated into the brick constructions in temples, the name was retained.

BASTI
Jain temples are called Basti, Basati, Vasathi etc. The original Sanskrit word is vasathi.

BHANDAR
A book house or library of Jain literature. The one in Jaisalmer is very famous.

BHUNGA
In Kutch, the houses are circular with round walls made of clay, on top of which is the wooden framework of the roof, which is then thatched with straw. This circular house plan is called Bhunga. n Blind arch An arch without an opening.

BRAHMAN
The highest in the caste hierarchy, of the four Varnas in Hinduism and Jainism.

BRAHMINISM
The predecessor of Hinduism. Based on the Vedas, only the Brahmins, the topmost in caste hierarchy could interact with God and man.

BUDDHISM
Was started by Buddha who had his own ideals. He took the path of moderation, which was accepted by the ruling class and spread all over India. In the 13th century, it was overwhelmed by Hinduism and all but disappeared.

BUTTRESS
A wall designed to reinforce the main wall, so that it will not collapse under pressure.

CAMPANILE
An independent structure like a belfry that developed in Italian churches.

CAPITAL
The top most portion of the pillar that is elaborately sculpted with designs. The most popular designs are cushions and the pot and foliage motif .

CARAVANSARAI
Wayside inns, in the Islamic world, for travellers, sometimes simply called sarai.

CAVE DWELLINGS, CAVE TEMPLES
These are created by hollowing out rocks. There are simple caves and architecturally complex ones with pillars and beams. In Buddhism, the monks' dwellings were called Viharas and the shrine caves were called Chaityas.

CENOTAPH
Is used as a memorial to the dead or a place to pray for the dead, but where the dead are not actually buried. It is a tomb design, with its origin in central Asia. An imitation coffin is kept on the main platform and the actual coffin is kept in a small tomb room underground.

CHADDAR
In the Mughal gardens, diagonal waterways were designed in stone, which gave the effect of a waterfall when water flowed over it. The resultant bubble formations were very enjoyable.

CHAITYA
This is a common word in Sanskrit for the object of prayer. In Buddhism, this word came to be associated with anything connected to Buddha. Since the most important thing associated with prayer was the stupa, the hall where the stupa was deified came to be called the Chaitya hall.

CHAITYA WINDOW
In order to light up the interior of Chaitya caves, horseshoe shaped arch windows were constructed and came to be called Chaitya windows.

CHALA
Hindu temples of Bengal. Every surface of the hipped roof was called Chala. Usually, four-sided roofs were called Char Chala and a two-tiered roofs of this type were called Aat Chala.

CHALUKYA STYLE
Fergusson, who chronicled Indian architecture, called the temple architectural style of the Middle Ages, the Chalukyan style, after the dynasty that ruled during that period. This name is not used anymore. n Char bagh gThe square garden. Char Bagh, an Islamic design, is a large square garden dvided into four smaller quadrants and water channels.

CHATTRI
An umbrella-like, circular disc, at the apex of the stupa. Usually made of stones, but wooden ones can be seen in some cave temples.

CHAUMUKHA/CHATURMUKHA
In Jain temples, four thirthankara statues (Chaumukha) are placed together, facing the four cardinal directions, with their backs towards each other. The four sides of the shrines were open and mandapas were built on all four sides. Thus Jain temples could be extended on all four sides.

CHHATRI
These were decorative elements on the roof of Indian Islamic structures. They were also called small pavilions.

CHHATRI
An open structure with a dome supported by four or more pillars. Chhatra means umbrella in Sanskrit. After the advent of Islam, tombs were built and these tomb structures came to be called chhatris. n

CHORTEN
A stupa is called a chorten, in Tibet and Ladakh. It started as a mound where Buddha's remains were venerated and was later built in various places, as a symbol of Buddhism.

CIRCUMBULATORY
A corridor or pathway that pilgrims use to walk around a shrine.

CLOISTER
The courtyard in European monasteries, surrounded by a corridor.

COLONIAL STYLE
Buildings erected by the Europeans in the colonies. At first, simple English style buildings were erected in India that were later blended with the Indian traditional architecture that gave rise to the Indo-Saracenic style.

CORBELLED STRUCTURE
A construction technique where bricks or slabs of stone are kept one on top of another, horizontally jutting out a little at a time, Arches and domes were constructed using this technique. Since arches and domes built this way are not very strong, large spaces cannot be spanned with this technique.

DARGAH
The tomb of a Sufi saint is known as Dargah, in Persian. In Arabic it is called Mazar. Once in a year, believers collect here in large numbers and hold prayer services, etc.

DARWAZA
Entrance gateway in Persian

DELHI SULTANATE
The Islamic dynasties that ruled Delhi until the Mughal dynasty was established. They came from Turkey and Afghanistan. It started with the Slave Dynasty, went on to the Khalji Dynasty, followed by the Tughlaq dynasty, then the Sayyed dynasty and ended with the Lodi dynasty.

DEUL
The shrine in an Orissa temple. At times the whole temple is called a Deul.

DIWAN-I-AM
Public audience room The hall where the Muslim emperors gave audience to low ranked officials and common people. It was also used as a courtroom.

DIWANI-I-KHAS
Private audience room The hall in Islamic palaces where the King gave private audience to officials and dignitaries. Meetings were also held here.

DOME
The ceiling and a roof created by placing bricks or cut stones in a particular fashion and creating a big spherical space without pillars. It came to India along with Islamic architecture. Before that similar domes were constructed in India with corbelled structures.

DOUBLE SHELL DOME
In Islamic structures, the dome and the ceiling are two separate layers with a ceiling support, in between. As a result, the height of the ceiling is perfect from the inside while retaining the majestic appearance on the outside.

DRAVIDIAN
The language and people of the four south Indian states are called Dravidians and they are different from the Aryans of the north. The south style temple construction is also called Dravidian style of construction.

DUKHANG
Assembly Hall in a Buddhist Monastery during religious services. The saint is deified in the front and the monks sit in a line and work, on the opposite side. The ceilings are high and the light enters from the top.

DURGA
The wife of Shiva who is worshipped independently. Also called Parvathi, Uma, Gauree, Kali etc.

DVARAPALA
These are statues placed at temple entrances, to protect the shrine.

EKA-RATNA
A Hindu temple in Bengal, which has only one tower.

EK-BANGLA
The half room in a Hindu temple, in Bengal.

FACADE
The main elevation of a building - usually the front elevation.

FEUDAL KINGDOM
Semi-independent states, under the control of the British. It is said that in 1927, there were 562 such states. The chief of these states was generally called Maharaja. n Four Iwan style The Persian style mosque has four iwans surrounding a courtyard and facing each other.

FRIDAY MOSQUE
The large mosque, where all believers in the area gather. This is also called the Jami Masjid (Friday mosque) or Jama Masjid.

GANDHARA
At present in northwest Pakistan. Buddhist art, with a heavy influence of Hellenic culture is prominent here. The architectural style of monasteries was also developed here.

GANGA
The river Ganges, is a holy river that is supposed to have the power of purification. The sculptures of Ganga and Yamuna can be seen at times on the entrance gateways of temples.

GARBHAGRIHA
The sanctum sanctorum. In Hindu temples, statues of gods are deified in a shrine.

GELUGPA
A new Buddhist group in Tibet also called the Yellow Cap. Sionkpa started it in the 14th century, as a rigid religion based on virtuous conduct, but it was merged into the Kagyu group, in the 17th century. The two groups coexist in Ladakh.

GHAT
Stone steps usually leading down to a river, or a lake. They descend in steps making bathing possible. Even if there was no temple near by, the water source was a religious space.

GOMMATESHWARA
The son of the first tirthankara, Adinatha. He is also called Bahubali and is worshipped in south India. His gigantic statue has been sculpted on a monolithic rock.

GOMPA
The Tibetan word used in Ladakh and Sikkim to mean temples or monasteries. The monks and the young novice monks, live together, self-sufficiently in the gompas.

GOPURA
In south India, a fence surrounds the precincts of a temple and tall turret-like entrances are built on all four sides. These turrets are called gopuras. Usually, they rise above the fence and are sometimes as tall as 60 m.

GOTHIC REVIVAL
It was started around the 18th century, in England, when Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages was revived. At that time, architects in India too, built colonial buildings with Gothic influences.

GOVERNOR GENERAL OF INDIA
The top-most official who ruled India for the British. At first he was the head of the British East India Company, in Bengal, in 1774. In 1834, he became the Governor General of the whole of India. In 1854, when the King of England also became the King of the Indian nation, he became the royal representative and ruled by proxy.

GOVINDADEVA
God who looks after the cows. Another name for Krishna.

GUMBAD
A dome in Persian. The tombs with a dome for a roof, also came to be called Gumbad. The same is called Gubba in Arabic.

GUMPHA
The cave temples of Orissa are called Gumphas.

GURUDWARA
The prayer hall and the surrounding buildings of the Sikh religion are called Gurudwara. Guru means teacher and Gurudwara means a teacher's house. Gurudwaras resemble the Mughal palaces in their architecture and are usually painted completely white.

HAMIRUKA/HARMIKA
A box like structure on top of the stupa. On top of this, an umbrella-like circular disc is erected

HAMMAM
The bathing house in Mughal architecture, equipped with a steam bath.

HAVELI
A residence made of wood or stone, in Persian. The word corresponds to the word mansion in English.

HELLENISM
Is a culture that is a blend of the Grecian culture and the eastern culture after Alexander came to conquer the east. The effect of Hellenism spread from Gandhara to Kashmir, but there is not much remaining now.

HINDUISM
Brahmanism or the Indian religion. It would be more apt to call it an aggregate of the life style, customs and thinking process of Indians in general.

HOYSALA STYLE
The architecture developed by the Hoysala dynasty in south India. It was an in-between style with mature looking, step designs. There is more than one shrine, with a star shaped plan and a profusion of sculptures.

ICON
Any sculpted statue used in prayer, be it of a God, human or animal. In India, statues are aplenty. Islam frowns upon idol worship thus there are neither murals nor statues in a mosque.

IDGAH
Idgah is an outdoor prayer area, where all Muslims meet during the ID festival. Along with the mihrab and minarets, the Quibla wall faces Mecca.

IMAMBARA
The Sufi saint, Imam Hussain attained martyrdom in Karbala, in Iraq, in the year 680. Since then, this day is celebrated in his memory. Imambaras are used during the Muharram festival.

INDO-SARACENIC STYLE
Many colonial style buildings were built during the British era. Later, the traditional Indian style and the Mughal style were incorporated into this. This blended style is called the Indo-Saracenic style.

IRIMOYA
Irimoya is a type of roof style traditionally predominant in Japan, where two sloping roofs are placed either parallel to each other or angled to each other, with a small roof placed on top of them.

ISLAM
Islam means, "absolute obedience to the only God, Allah". Islam was started by the prophet Muhammad, in Arabia, in the 6th century. The religion came to India in the 11th century. In 1206, Islamic rule was established in Delhi.

IWAN
Iwan is an element of design from Persia. A large arched opening is constructed on the fašade of the building and a square framework is built around it, which is called, Iwan. It is a half open space with a vaulted ceiling on the inner side of the arch.

JAGAMOHAN
The mandapa (prayer room in front of the shrine) in Orissa.

JAINISM
Mahavira started this religion with the doctrine of Ahimsa (non-killing, non-violence) in the 5th- 6th century, BC. Most of the believers are very rich businessmen, who have built many temples.

JALI
Stone latticework on walls and entrances through which, one could look outdoors and let in sunlight and air. Usually 3 to 5 cm thick, with arabesque or geometric patterns.

JAMI MASJID
Friday mosque.

JANTAR MANTAR
These are astronomical observatories built by Raja Sawai Jai Singh, who was a Rajput chieftain and an astronomer.

JHAROKHA
This is a decorative window or projecting balcony made with a jali. Generally Rajputs adopted this style.

JINA
The tirthankaras of the Jain religion were called Jina because they have attained victory over worldly passions. Jaina is a person who teaches Jina.

JOR BANGLA
Hindu temples in Bengal with two banglas were called Jor Bangla. n KAGYUPA A Buddhist group in Tibet, also called the Red Cap Group. In the 11th century.

KAILASA
A legendary mountain where Shiva is said to be residing. Shiva temples are built as an analogy to the mountain and were sometimes called Kailasa.

KALYANA MANDAPA
The hall in south India, which was used for the wedding ceremony of gods.

KOVIL
Temples in Kerala and Tamil Nadu are called kovil.

KRISHNA
One of the incarnations of Vishnu, who advised Arjuna, through the verses in the Bhagawad Gita. Krishna, known by many other names is most adored in India, and his pictures and statues are aplenty.

KSHATRIYA
The second in the hierarchy of the Hindu Varna (caste) system or warrior class. The king and his soldiers were Kshatriyas. Buddha and Mahavira were born Kshatriyas.

KULU LAGAN
A Buddhist shrine in a monastery.

KUND
Kunds are reservoirs and tanks with steps, found mainly in west India and south Karnataka. At times they were constructed inside the temple precincts.

KUTTAMBALAM
A large building, in a Kerala temple complex that is used for religious discourses, music, etc. Inside the structure is a stage that resembles the Noa stage, in Japan.

LHAKANG
The name of the halls in the Gompas of Ladhakh. Also a Mahayana Buddhist temple in Ladakh and HP. There are various types of Lhakang gDukhang

LINGA
Linga is the symbol of Shiva. It is a phallus and is deified in Shiva temples, as standing on a female genital organ. The worship of a Shiva lingam continues from the days of the Indus Valley Civilization for whom genital worship was a form of ensuring fertility and productivity.

MADRASSA
Is an Arabic word meaning school, educational facility, etc. High-level education based on the Quran is imparted here. Since this system started in Arabia, the building is usually in the Arabian style, with four iwans.

MAHA MANDAPA
A large mandapa. When there are many mandapas in a temple, the main mandapa is called the Maha Mandapa.

MAHABHARATA
One of the two great epics of India, along with the Ramayana. It is based on the 'Bharatha War' that took place around the 10th century BC. Reliefs of scenes from the Mahabharatha can often be seen sculpted on the walls of temples. This literally means the Great King. The chieftains of Hindu feudal kingdoms were called Maharajas. The Muslim chief was called a Nawab. Depending on the area, they were called Maharana, Maharawat, Maharao etc.

MAHAVIRA
The founder of Jainism. He is the 24th and the last in the line of tirthankaras. Mahavira was born a prince, who left the house at the age of 30, after long meditation became a Jina (victor) and at the age of 42, started Jainism and came to be called Mahavira (Great warrior).

MANASTAMBHA
A stambha found in south India, in front of Jain temples. Usually, a four faced Jina statue is placed at the very top. At times, statues of Brahma, who is supposed to be the protector of the area, is also found on top and it is then called a Brahma Deva Stambha.

MANDAPA
The prayer hall right in front of the shrine. The basic construction of a Hindu temple is 'shrine and mandapa style'. In large temples there will be many mandapas and they will have their own names. gMaha mandapa, Ranga Mandapa, Meghanath Mandapa, Namaskara Mandapa, Kalyana Mandapa, Open Mandapa, Jagamohan.

MANDIR
Generally means temple, regardless of religion. Important buildings and palaces may also be called thus.

MAQBARA
A Persian word that means tomb or tomb gardens

MARATHA
People whose mother tongue is Marathi are called Marathas. Shivaji, who was a Maratha, fought vehemently with the Mughals and formed the Maratha Hindu kingdom. Later he fought three Maratha battles with the British.

MASJID
Mosque

MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
A method of construction that uses stones or bricks piled one on top of the other. In principle, it is the opposite of wood construction.

MATHA
A Hindu monastery. A Buddhist monastery is called a Vihara n

MAUSOLEUM
Originally there was no custom of erecting tombs in India. It was brought into India along with the Muslims and the Hindu Rajputs in west India also adopted it. Mausoleum architecture is one of the features of Indo Islamic architecture.

MECCA
The Arabian city where Muhammed was born. The Quaba temple is the centre of the Islamic world. All the mosques in the world face Mecca.

MEGHANATHA MANDAPA
A large shrine seen in large Jain temples.

MIDDLE STYLE
The architectural style of the Middle Ages, was a style that was a blend of the style of North India and South India . It came to be called the Vessara style. There are many examples of this style in Karnataka.

MIHRAB
Niche in the Quibla wall designed in the mosque. It is built in the direction of Mecca. Mimbar The platform near the central Mihrab in the mosque. Usually, it is very decorative, with a roof and stairs. This platform is used for preaching.

MINARET
A tower attached to the mosque. From here, the believers are called to come to pray for 'Azan'. At times these minarets stand independently. It is also attached as a decoration on tombs and entrances.

MITHUNA
Statue of an amorous couple. At times, in temples, couples in intimate postures were sculpted, which was thought to bring good luck. At times, it is found in Buddhist and Jain temples too.

MONOLITH
Anything that has been sculpted out of one single rock, like a stambha, etc. Rock cut temples are monolith temples.

MOSQUE
The prayer house of Muslims. In Arabic, it is called Masjid, which means the place to prostrate oneself. The main places inside the mosque are the Quibla wall, Mihrab. Minaret, and the water jet to purify oneself

MUGHAL
A dynasty started by Babur in 1526, which later controlled most of India. Mughal means Mongol and the Mughals are the blood descendants of Ghenghis Khan of the Timur Empire.

MUHAMMAD
The founder of Islam. Muhammed. He proclaimed himself to be equivalent to Moses of the Jews and Jesus of the Christians. His name was anglicised to Mahomad.

MUKHALINGA
The face of Shiva sculpted on the Linga. It may be one face or many faces. If four faces are sculpted then it is called Chatur Mukha Linga.

MUSLIM
A follower of Islam. Most of the Indian Muslims belong to the Sunni sect. Around Lucknow, there are more Shias.

NADAMBALAM
A fence with a roof, that encloses the temple in Kerala. At times it becomes a corridor with latticed walls.

NAGARA STYLE
Nagara means city or belonging to a city. It is an architectural style of temples in north India.

NANDI
A bull and a vahana (vehicle) of Shiva. Also found as a statue in front of Shiva temples. At times independent Nandi shrines can also be seen.

NARASIMHA
One of the ten incarnations of Vishnu. He has the body of a human being and the head of a lion. The main Narasimha Temple is located in Ahobilam in south India.

NATARAJA
The King of dance, also another name for Shiva. Usually seen in a dancing posture. The Chidambaram Temple in the south is a famous Nataraja Temple.

NAVA RATNA
Hindu temples in Bengal that had nine small towers.

NAVE
The main space inside Christian churches in Europe. Usually, there are two rows of columns in the hall. Of the three spaces thus created, the centre is called the main aisle and the sides are the left and the right aisles.

NAYAKA
The Governors who ruled the area on behalf of the Vijayanagar Empire. As the empire weakened, the Nayakas became independent and formed their own kingdoms. This era is called the Nayaka era (dynasty).

NEO-CLASSICAL
The restored style of old European, Greek and Roman architecture.

NICHE
A cavity on the wall. A Mihrab is also a type of a niche.

NIRVANA
Ultimate aim of Buddhists, final release from the cycle of existence.

NORTHERN STYLE
Temple architecture in India is broadly divided into the North style and the South style. The shikhara or tower on top of the shrine in the North style is vertical and strong. They can be classified as the Orissa type, Khajuraho type, west India type and can also be called the Nagara type.

PAGODA
The origin of the word is unknown, but Europeans called the Buddhist stupa and tiered towers, pagodas. The five-storied tower of Japan is also called a pagoda.

PANCHA-RATNA
The Bengal temples with five towers were called Pancha ratna

PANCHRATNA
A style where four shrines are added in the four corners of the main shrine, thus creating five shrines. If three more shrines are added it becomes an eight-shrine temple.

PAPIER-MACHE
An art form that uses paper pulp and glue to create a shape. When dry it is varnished and painted on. It is used to make household artefacts.

PARAPET
A low wall is built on the roof to protect the ends of the roof and to make it water proof.

PARSHVANATHA
The 23rd thirthankara who lived 250 years before Mahavira. It is said that the Parshva religion was the predecessor of Jainism.

PAVILION
An arbor, or a summerhouse.

PIDHA-DEUL
The structure with pyramidal roofs in Orissa temples, usually the prayer hall. Pidha is the flat part from where the pyramidal tower is built. It resembles the temple architecture of the south India. Pillared hall A space with rows of pillars, usually found in Arabian mosques. Since the construction of true arches and domes was not known, most Hindu temples had large halls that were lined with columns.

PLAN
Plan usually means the floor plan of the building. The structure and style of the whole building is also called plan.

POL
A derivative from Sanskrit language that means doorway .

PORCH
The entrance of a building. The roof is supported by the wall on one side and two pillars on the other side.

PORTAL
The area around the entrance of a room or a building. Especially in temples, the entrances of the mandapa and shrine have statues of Dwarapalas and are sculpted and decorated with lively designs.

PORTICO
A corridor with pillars.

POST AND BEAM STRUCTURE
This is a style of trabeated construction where a beam is placed over two pillars. Originally, it was a style used for wooden constructions, but in India, this technique was adopted for stone constructions, too.

PRADAKSHINA PATH
Circumbulatory or pathway around the shrine of the temples by keeping time is a common form of prayer in India. This pathway made of stone around the shrine is called Pradakshina path.

PYLON
The tower at the entrance of an Egyptian temple. There have many features similar to the gopura of South India.

QUIBLA WALL
The straight line facing Mecca is called the Quibla. The wall facing Mecca in the mosque is called the Quibla wall. Believers pray facing this wall.

QURAN (Koran)
Actually called kur-an, it is the holy book of the Muslims, in which the sayings of Muhammad that were given to him as revelations from God were compiled after his death.

RAILING
The fence that surrounds the circumbulatory around the stupa. Originally built in wood, later this style was adopted in stone fences that can be seen even today.

RAJPUT
Rajputs, migrated from central Asia, during the 5th century, settled in west India and blended with the locals. They were a warrior class and established their kingdom in west India.

RAMAYANA
A very popular epic with Rama and Sita as the main characters. It has been depicted profusely in paintings and sculptures. There are also many temples dedicated to Rama, who is one of the incarnations of Vishnu.

RANG MAHAL
Means a colourfully painted palace. It usually denotes the building in the palace used for entertainment.

RANGA MANDAPA
When there is more than one mandapa in a temple, the main mandapa is called a Ranga mandapa. It is a place where people collect.

RANN
Forms a large part of Kutch in west India. It is a marshy swamp with salty layers and cannot be used at all.

RATHA
A wagon or horse carriage. The chariot used in temples to take God out during festivities is also called a Ratha. At times, the shrine is also called a Ratha.

RATNA
In Bengal, the towers in the temple are called Ratna, which means a jewel.

RAUZA
An institutionalised tomb rather than a religious place. Most of them are located in the middle of gardens or tomb gardens.

ROCK CUT TEMPLE
These are temples where huge rocks were sculpted from the top downwards and the temple created, looked exactly like any other temple made with masonry work. These are called rock cut temples, to distinguish them from cave temples. Rococo The phase in European architecture, after the Baroque, where there was a surplus of decorations.

SAFAIENCE TILE
This is a tile with an enamel design on top of it, made by baking earthen slabs. These colourful designs are usually some holy writings or arabesque patterns which are decoratively attached to a wall surface.

SAGAR
Means lake and is usually used for man-made lakes.

SAMSARA
Ancient India believed that any living being, regardless of caste, would be reborn on the 49th day of their death. This was not considered romantic, but was bondage and the main aim or ideal of the religion was to cut the soul free from this bondage.

SAMVARANA
A pyramidal roof found in Gujarat, with countless small glass pieces stuck on it. The special feature is that contrary to the square plan, these are at an angle of 45 degrees.

SANCTUM SANCTORUM
Garbhagriha

SANGHA
Community or order of Buddhist priests, or Buddhist Monastery

SCHIST
Is a construction material mostly used in Karnataka. It is a fine textured stone, green in colour that was easy to sculpt on. The exterior is hard and it is also called crystal schist.

SEDGE HAT
A broad brimmed hat used in places where there is a lot of rainfall especially in south east Asian countries by farmers working in fields

SHAHJAHAN
The 5th emperor of the Mughal dynasty. He built many buildings like the Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Delhi, Jami Masjid, Delhi, etc. Old Delhi was previously called Shahjahanabad after him.

SHAIVITE
Devotee of Lord Shiva

SHIA
A large group that put Ali, a family member of prophet Muhammad in the rank of Caliph, are the Shia Ali (Ali school of thought) group and are called Shias. The 12 Imam group forms the national religion of Iran.

SHIKHARA
Usually the roof of a shrine is made to look like a mountain, with a tower formation. The whole edifice, including the shrine walls, is called shikhara in north India. In south India, only the rounded stone on the peak is called shikhara, which means mountain peak.

SHIVA
Shiva and Vishnu are the two main gods of Hinduism. Parvati (Durga) is his consort. In Shiva temples, his symbol, Linga is deified. In front of the Shiva temple a Nandi statue can be found.

SHRI KOVIL
The sanctum sanctorum in Kerala. They are usually square, round and apsidal in shape. Sometimes oval shapes are also found.

SIKHISM
A religion started in the 16th century, by Guru Nanak, mainly in the state of Punjab, opposing the caste system in Hinduism. He took the belief of one God and equality from Islam and blended Sufism and Bakthi (belief in God) in his religion.

SOUTHERN STYLE
The architectural style of temples in the Middle Ages, can be divided into the North type and the South type. The main feature of the South style is that the towers on the shrine are made of horizontal layers. This is also called the Dravidian style.

STAMBHA
Stambha means pillars that are independent o the building and were built as memorials. Emperor Ashoka built one in every area. Later, Jainism in south India, adopted this feature and built Maha Stambhas in front of their temples.

STEP-WELL
A Step-well, is a well, where steps lead down to the level of the water. It is frequently seen in west India, where it is called a vav and in north India, it is called a baoli. The step-wells built by kings, were rich underground structures, so heavily decorated with sculptures that they looked like palaces.

STUPA
Stone monuments over earthen mounds, shaped like half domes, built in India, in the olden days. These were developed specially by Buddhists. The remains of Buddha were deified here and this custom spread all over the country. In Tibet and Ladakh they are called chortens .

SULTAN
The head of the Islamic kingdom of the Sufi group was called Sultan.

SUNNI
Muslims are divided into two groups, the Shia group and the Sunni group. Those who believe in abstinence and penance, which is a fairly large group, are called Sunni.

SURYA
The Sun God of India, from the Rig Vedic era. Surya Temples can be found in Konark, Martand and Modhera.

TANK
A lake, pond etc., in Sanskrit is called a tadaka. In Gujarati it was called talao, which means man-made lake. It was changed to tank which meant reservoir, lake etc., and was incorporated into English language too.

TEPPAKULAM
Tanks in south India that are connected to the temple. During the Teppam festival, statues of Gods are taken on a float to the middle of the tank, where there will be a shrine, on an island.

TERRACOTTA
Slabs of clay that are swifty carved on when they are still wet and then baked in the kiln. They were used as decorations on the surface of the brick temples in Bengal.

TIRTHANKARA
Mahavira was the founder of Jainism. Before him, there is said to have been 23 thirthankaras and Mahavira is believed to be the 24th.

TIRTHA
A holy place and pilgrim centre in India. It is usually on the banks of a river. Tirtha means going from the world of daily life to the eternal world. Usually pilgrim centres in India are located on the banks of rivers or near the sea.

TOMB GARDEN
The royal tomb area of the Muslim and Rajput chieftains that were developed as public gardens or tomb gardens.

TORANA
A memorial entrance of pillars, beams and braces. Specially used as the entrances to stupas, in Buddhist temples. It can be seen in some middle age Hindu temples, too. In the earlier times, there must have been wooden structures built as entrance gates of villages.

TRABEATED
Pillar and beam construction style where a beam is placed across the top of two pillars

TRACERY
A European architectural detail of lattice decoration around window frames. It is similar to the Indian Jali'.

TRIMURTHIS
Shiva , Vishnu and Brahma, three Gods unified together make the force of the universe. Can be seen at times in sculptures.

TYMPANUM
The semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface on top of the window or gable in European architecture is called tympanum.

VAULT
A ceiling and roof constructed in masonry is called a vault. Islamic constructions used many vaults and domes.

VEDA
The sacred book of the Hindu religion. There are four Vedas, the Sama Veda, Rig Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.

VESARA STYLE
The in-between style of south Indian architecture during the Middle Ages.

VIHARA
Vihara, in Sanskrit, means a long walk or a place to take a long walk. Buddhist and Jain monks left their home and lived in cave temples. The monks' quarters in these cave temples were called viharas.

VIJAYANAGARA STYLE
The Vijayanagar dynasty was the last Hindu dynasty to rule India. The architectural style of the Vijayanagar dynasty was different from that of the Chola dynasty. Their main shrines were small and the surrounding gopuras were huge. The sculptures were also complex and had details of the Baroque style.

VIMANA
The main the architectural style of south Indian is called Vimana. The word Moolaprasada is used in north India. Usually, there is a tower on top of the garbhagriha (shrine).

VISHNU
In the Hindu religion, Vishnu along with Shiva, are the most important Gods. With them as the patron, there is the Shaivaite group and the Vaishnavaite group. Vishnu has 10 incarnations Rama, Krishna etc.

WEST COAST STYLE
In the long, thin state of Kerala, sandwiched between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats, rainfall is plenty. Hence the wooden roofs on the buildings here are sloping. This style is called the West Coast style.

YAZHI
Yazhi is a mythical beast, which looks like a lion with horns. It is usually sculpted in a row on the base platform of the temple or at the base of pillars. It is also called Vyala.

ZENANA
Harem, the ladies quarters in an Islamic palace. The men's quarters were called mardhana.